By M. V. Singer, D. Brenner
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Additional info for Alcohol And the Gastrointestinal Tract: Special Issue: Digestive Diseases 2005
Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1995;19:1403–1413. 10 Simanowski UA, Stickel F, Maier H, Gartner U, Seitz HK: Effect of alcohol on gastrointestinal cell regeneration as a possible mechanism in alcohol-associated carcinogenesis. Alcohol 1995;12:111–115. 11 Mirvish SS, Weisenburger DD, Hinrichs SH, Nickols J, Hinman C: Effect of catechol and ethanol with and without methylamylnitrosamine on esophageal carcinogenesis in the rat. Carcinogenesis 1994;15:883–887. 12 Keshavarzian A, Rizk G, Urban G, Willson C: Ethanol-induced esophageal motor disorder: development of an animal model.
Also, the hepatic microcirculation was acutely impaired. Narrowed vessels and partially occluded sinusoids due to erythrocyte stasis led to decreased liver blood ﬂow, thus disturbing the transport of plasma substances from the sinusoids to hepatocytes and impairing hepatic metabolic capacity [84–87]. Another important aspect of transient functional deterioration and permanent injury of the liver due to acute ethanol administration is the activation of Kupffer cells. Acute ethanol ingestion of 4 g/kg ethanol in mice lead to activation of Kupffer cells as indicated by pseudopodia and ﬁlopodia  after an initial ethanol-induced tolerance .
Mol Pharmacol 1997;51:944–950. 106 Niemelä O: Aldehyde-protein adducts in the liver as a result of ethanol-induced oxidative stress. Front Biosci 1999;4:D506–D513. 107 Kono H, Bradford BU, Rusyn I, Fujii H, Matsumoto Y, Yin M, Thurman RG: Development of an intragastric enteral model in the mouse: studies of alcohol-induced liver disease using knockout technology. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg 2000;7:395–400. 108 Kono H, Rusyn I, Yin M, Gabele E, Yamashina S, Dikalova A, Kadiiska MB, Connor HD, Mason RP, Segal BH, Bradford BU, Holland SM, Thurman RG: NADPH oxidase-derived free radicals are key oxidants in alcohol-induced liver disease.