By Philip Katcher
While the Southern states seceded to shape their very own executive in 1861, one among their first strikes was once to organise a military. The South's struggling with males served from the time in their enlistment till the tip of the warfare, receiving negative rations, or even worse garments – and this even though one of many first steps taken via the recent military used to be to layout a uniform and identify criteria for accoutrements and guns. during this first of 5 volumes interpreting American Civil battle armies, Philip Katcher profiles the uniforms issued by way of the nationwide accomplice executive to its artillery, cavalry and infantry troops.
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Extra resources for American Civil War Armies (1): Confederate Troops (Men-at-Arms, Volume 170)
Some examples also carry maker's marks . Very little variation will be encountered on the Knight's Cross, which was manufactured to very high standards. Many Knight's Cross winners l' llchased additional, or replacement specimens, through retail outlets. T hese examples often used alternative materials, such as silver plated zinc I()r the frame and brass for the centre. The use of brass or copper for the centre is said to have been popular with Kriegsmarine personnel, due to I he non-rusting quality of these metals in salt air.
68 69 SECOND CLASS OF 1939 THE IRON CROSS OF 1939 There are also cases of military personnel, serving at the front under combat conditions (ie Tank Repair Mechanics, Supply Troops, etc) receiving the War Merit Cross when a case could well have been made for the award of the Iron Cross. It can be seen therefore that there seems to have been a certain amount of overlap in the awarding of Merit and Iron Crosses. ,. 1939 IRON CROSS SECOND CLASS RECIPIENTS Captain Otto Giese Otto Giese served as Second Mate on the Anneliese Essberber.
95 THE KNIGHT'S CROSS OF 1939 THE IRON CROSS OF 1939 available to the British authorities, but rather used a range of grades fora single decoration, the Iron Cross. It should also be noted that the Iron Cross and Knight's Cross were democratically awarded decorations, and, indeed, the Iron Cross was one of the first ever such awards, where no special distinction was made between officer and enlisted ranks. 1 ii II' iIi 'i Victoria Cross Military Cross Military Medal Distinguished Flying Cross Distinguished Flying Medal Distinguished Service Cross Distinguished Service Medal Distinguished Service Order Distinguished Conduct Medal Air Force Cross Air Force Medal Totals World War One 633 40,236 121,454 572 1,694 5,588 9,767 25,072 205,016 World War Two 182 10,892 16,391 21,946 6,698 4,602 7,290 5,444 1,898 1,712 259 77,314 Ifwe compare the World War Two award figures with those for the Iron Cross, certainly the Second and First Classes would appear to have been liberally awarded, but the Knight's Cross award figures compare very favourably with British Gallantry Awards.