Aspects of Multilingualism in European Language History by Kurt Braunmuller (Editor), Gisella Ferraresi (Editor)

By Kurt Braunmuller (Editor), Gisella Ferraresi (Editor)

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Festschrift für Hermann M. Flasdieck (pp. 11–50). Heidelberg: Carl Winter. Baldinger, K. (1998). Etymologien: Untersuchungen zu FEW 21–23. Band 2 zu FEW 221 , 222 und 23 [Beiheft zur Zeitschrift für romanische Philologie]. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer. Battaglia = Battaglia, S. et al. (1961). Grande dizionario della lingua italiana. Turin: Unione tipografico. , & Alessio, G. (1950–1957). Dizionario etimologico italiano. Florence: Barbèra. Bernard, J. (1968). Navires et gens de mer à Bordeaux (vers 1400 – vers 1550) [Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes – VIe section: Centre de recherches historiques.

Possibly (if mundanely) it simply had to do with the competence or predilections of an individual scribe. Irrespective of the matrix language, though (and of course it would later become English), the documents are all characterized by consistent and persistent language-mixing. Naturally, this affects almost exclusively nouns, the element most commonly involved in code-switching (or borrowing). Most striking of these is Sandahl’s Appendix 3 (Sandahl 1982: 143). He observes (Sandahl 1982: 134) that the main interest of this document is that its sea terms are in Anglo-Norman, and contrasts it with Appendix 4 (Sandahl 1982: 144–148) which follows the normal practice (for Anglo-Norman documents) of giving sea terms in English.

As the word suggests, this too is originally Dutch (< hoecboot), and (unlike hulk) rare (conceivably because of the potential for confusion with hake (the fish), of unknown etymology, DEAF H 93, OED H 27, DMLBS 1131b acca, haka). Nevertheless, it is used in both Latin and Anglo-Norman documents, although (with one exception, Wright 1996: 144) always apparently in a Dutch and Flemish context – neither the boat nor the word, it seems, have ever been properly naturalized into English. Finally, let us turn to the documents printed by Sandahl as a series of “text appendices” (Sandahl 1982: 133–165).

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