By Huang Y., Benesty J.

Audio sign Processing for Next-Generation Multimedia communique platforms provides state-of-the-art electronic sign processing idea and implementation concepts for difficulties together with speech acquisition and enhancement utilizing microphone arrays, new adaptive filtering algorithms, multichannel acoustic echo cancellation, sound resource monitoring and separation, audio coding, and sensible sound level copy. This book's concentration is sort of completely at the processing, transmission, and presentation of audio and acoustic signs in multimedia communications for telecollaboration the place immersive acoustics will play an exceptional position within the close to destiny.

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For this case, the maximum directivity index is where is the order of the microphone [13]. 0 dB respectively. Derivations of some design examples for are given in the following sections. 25), there are an infinite number of possible designs for differential arrays. Presently, the most common first-order microphones are: dipole, cardioid, hypercardioid, and supercardioid. The extension to higher orders is straightforward and is developed in later sections. Most of the arrays that are described in this chapter have directional characteristics that are optimal in some way; namely, the arrays are optimal with respect to one of the performance measures previously discussed: directivity index, front-toback ratio, sidelobe threshold, and beamwidth.

Second, the difference between the maximum gains for spherical and cylindrical fields is quite sizable and increases as the number of elements is increased. 28 Audio Signal Processing The first observation is not too problematic since practical differential arrays implementation are limited to third-order. The second observation shows that attainable gain in cylindrical fields might not result in required microphone array gains for desired rejection of noise and reverberation in rooms that have low absorption in the axial plane.

0 dB. 5 Equi-Sidelobe Second-Order Differential. Since a second-order differential microphone has two zeros in its response it is possible to design a second-order microphone such that the two lobes defined by these zeros are at the same level. 84). 9 dB. 6 dB. We begin our analysis of second-order Chebyshev differential arrays begins by comparing terms of the Chebyshev polynomial and the second-order array response function. 28) yields: where L is again the sidelobe threshold level. 18(c) show the resulting second-order designs for –15 dB and –30 dB sidelobes respectively.