By M. Morrison
Experiences in Avian Biology is a chain of works too lengthy for The Condor, released at abnormal durations by way of the Cooper Ornithological Society.
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Extra info for Avian Foraging Theory Methodlogy and Applications (Studies in avian biology)
Many of these aspects of foraging behavior are also sex-specific (Holmes et al. 1978; Smith 1974a, b). As an example, foraging attack rate should vary not only with food availability but also with quality and quantity of food/peck (McFarland 1986a), prey type or size consumed (Goss-Custard 1977a, b; Paszkowski and Moermond 1984; Robinson 1986), foraging tactic used to acquire food (Baker and Baker 1973), probability of success for a given attack (Goss-Custard 1970, Baker and Baker 1973), and physiological condition of the bird (Paszkowski and Moermond 1984, Moore and Simm 1985).
Consequently, all trees could be watched simultaneously for bird activity. The observer (myself or an assistant) observed for 90 min before moving to another group of trees. From 18 June to 1 July 1985, we recorded bird activity between 07:30 and I l:OO. Observation times were rotated so that each group oftrees was watched for 180 min during each half of the morning. When a bird landed in an experimental tree, we recorded the tree number, time of day, bird species, duration of its stay in the tree (in set), its activity (feeding, singing, or perching), and when possible, its foraging attack rate (recorded as number of pecks/set of observation).
1989) or simulated ecosystems (Heinrich and Collins 1983) can also provide information about why certain prey are eaten or avoided. THE SAMPLING PROBLEM Estimates of arthropod abundance are either relative or absolute. Relative measures provide only indices of abundance, such as numbers per surface area of sticky trap in a given time period. They have limited utility in studies of arthropod abundance and availability. Absolute measures, on the other hand, permit estimates of arthropod density that can be used for interspecific comparisons and comparisons among different habitats and seasons.