Basics of Electrical Engineering by S. Sharma

By S. Sharma

This booklet is ready fundamentals of electric Engineering

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2004). Fig. 8 The dielectric constant (H ) and loss factor (HH ) as a function of frequency for packed lysozyme samples containing nearly two layers of bound water at 25 ëC (adapted from Harvey and Hoekstra, 1972). Dielectric properties of foods Fig. , 2003a). where # is the viscosity, T is the absolute temperature, V is the volume of a molecule, and k is the Boltzmann constant. The viscosity of a fluid decreases sharply with increasing temperature according to an Arrhenius approach (Macosko, 1994): # ˆ #0 eEa aRg T ‰2X12Š where Ea is the activation energy and Rg is the universal gas constant.

6. , 2004) Foods 915 MHz 2450 MHz Temp. 0 a All moisture contents were on a wet basis. molecules at room temperature (see Fig. 5). 1). Ice, having a very small loss factor, is almost transparent to microwaves. Oils are esters of long-chain fatty acids which have much less mobility compared to water molecules in response to oscillating electromagnetic fields. 1. 76 for apple vs. 03 for potato, Venkatesh and Raghavan, 2004). The air voids in apples reduce the loss factor and increase the penetration depth of microwaves at 915 MHz and 2450 MHz.

Principally, waveguides are hollow conductors of normally constant cross-section, rectangular and circular forms being of most practical use. 2) below which waves do not propagate. For rectangular waveguides with width a and height b the following equation can be derived for the cut-off frequency fc : r  W V 1 m2 n2 b b b p Y a ! b b ‡ a ` a b min 2a ""0 0 ˆ fc ‰1X45Š f ! p ˆ 1 b b 2 ""0 0 b Y X p Y a b b 2b ""0 0 Within the waveguide the wave may spread out in so-called modes, which define the electromagnetic field distribution within the waveguide.

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