Belief and Knowledge by Kenneth M. Sayre

By Kenneth M. Sayre

Contesting a lot modern epistemology and cognitive technological know-how, famous thinker Kenneth M. Sayre argues that, whereas a few cognitive attitudes similar to believing take propositions as items, there are various others (knowing, hoping, fearing, etc.) whose items are in its place states of affairs. consequently, wisdom can't be trust with different elements similar to justification extra, nor can wish and worry be kin a subject matter bears to neuronal mind states functioning as propositional representations. To help those claims Sayre undertakes an in depth exploration of trust and data and strains the kinfolk of cognitive attitudes to a community of similar thoughts like sure bet, fact, illustration, and intentionality. His findings not just problem present orthodoxy yet open new paths of study in epistemology and cognitive technology.

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The conception of knowledge as a kind of true belief trades upon an even more basic assumption that both knowledge and belief are atti- Page 4 tudes toward propositional objects. Put in somewhat different terms, the standard conception is that a subject N knows a proposition p just in case (i) N believes that p, (ii) p is true, and (iii) N's true belief is augmented by other factorssuch as a coherent body of supporting evidence or production by reliable belief-formation proceduresthat are capable of converting belief into knowledge.

But this challenge is premised upon a basic assumption that it shares with the standard conception of knowledge: the assumption that knowledge is true belief with something else added. For only if knowledge had true belief among its components would it be interesting to question whether justification suffices as the remaining constituent. The conception of knowledge as a kind of true belief trades upon an even more basic assumption that both knowledge and belief are atti- Page 4 tudes toward propositional objects.

Is a somewhat outraged way of asking for reasons, of asking what possibly could make you think that belief is rationally respectable. " in probing the claim of another person to have gained some such form of cognitive access. Thus we might ask Deirdre how she could have found that the gate is open, if we had reason to think that she had not been near the garden recently. " raised as challenges to someone's claim to have noticed or recognized. (Again, seldom is not never. L. Austin. 19 A brief look at its background will help shape a second criterion for distinguishing between attitudes of stance and of access.

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