Brain development : relationship to dietary lipid and lipid by Jacqueline Jumpsen

By Jacqueline Jumpsen

'This book's goal is to supply a centred evaluate (morphological, biochemical and practical) of mind improvement and to exemplify the function of lipids within the very important developmental occasions and the innovations which are in all probability altered through physiological adjustments in mind lipid composition. person chapters comprise: mind progress and vulnerability; mind lipids; Lipids and crucial fatty acids in mind improvement; crucial fatty acid synthesis and delivery to the mind; influence of nutrition on fatty acid composition in mind; Glycolipids and gangliosides; Neurotransmitters; and Relevance, reflections and destiny directions.'

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Example text

The degree to which the human fetus and newborn are able to desaturate and elongate 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 to their respective long-chain homologues is presently unclear. Cook (1991) concluded that the capacity of the neonatal rat brain for ∆-6 and ∆-5 desaturase is substantial and equals or surpasses that of the immature liver. Cook also states that during rapid and crucial brain growth stages, the relative contribution of conversion of 18:3n-3 to 22:6n-3 in brain compared to that by extra cerebral sources of 22:6n-3 remains undefined.

1994) suggest that in parenterally fed neonates, nitrogen utilization is improved when intravenous lipid is added. , 1992. 0 — — Fatty Acid Synthesis and Transport in the Brain Fatty acids of the nervous system are derived from in situ biosynthesis or through transport via the blood. The biosynthesis of saturated fatty acids in mammalian cells occurs by three main pathways: (1) de novo synthesis of fatty acids from acetyl CoA via malonyl CoA, (2) elongation of the fatty acid chain in mitochondria with acetyl CoA as the principal substrate, and (3) elongation of the fatty acid chain in microsomes with malonyl CoA as the carbon donor.

Bourre et al. (1989b), have indicated that a diet deficient in 18:3n-3 (sunflower or peanut oils) affects enzyme activities for Na+-K+-ATPase and acetylcholinesterase, electroretinogram wave amplitude, and learning capacity in rats. Provision of n-3 fatty acids reverses these functional impairments. 4% of caloric energy to avoid deficiency). ” In this regard, Health and Welfare Canada (1990) has recommended a ratio of between 4:1 and 10:1 for infant feeding. , 1988). A prolonged deficit of vitamin E can lead to neuropathy (Machlin, 1984), and therefore it plays an important role in neurological function.

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