This publication reports the nation of paintings within the box of chemical sensors for analyses of ionic or molecular species dissolved in liquid media, normally in aqueous options. The transduction of such units relies on chemical, organic and actual phenomena. the basic phenomena curious about those sensors are defined within the varied chapters via experts having an outstanding services within the box. a number of fresh bibliographic references are given. lots of the units should be miniaturised utilizing sleek applied sciences permitting a fabrication on a wide scale, for a mass construction at affordable. in addition, such units may possibly open the sphere of functions in a close to destiny (environmental, biomedical, foodstuff industries, domotic and automobile purposes etc.).Content:
Chapter 1 common good points (pages 1–23): Bernard Michaux
Chapter 2 Chemical Sensors: improvement and commercial requisites (pages 25–44): Jacques Fouletier and Pierre Fabry
Chapter three Sensitivity and Selectivity of Electrochemical Sensors (pages 45–80): Pierre Fabry and Jean?Claude Moutet
Chapter four Potentiometric Sensors (Ions and Dissolved Gases) (pages 81–113): Annie Pradel and Eric Saint?Aman
Chapter five Amperometric Sensors (pages 115–171): Alain Walcarius, Chantal Gondran and Serge Cosnier
Chapter 6 ISFET, BioFET Sensors (pages 173–208): Nicole Jaffrezic?Renault and Claude Martelet
Chapter 7 Biosensors and Chemical Sensors established Upon Guided Optics (pages 209–231): Jean?Pierre Goure and Loic Blum
Chapter eight Sensors and Voltammetric Probes for In Situ tracking of hint parts in Aquatic Media (pages 233–285): Marie?Louise Tercier?Waeber and Jacques Buffle
Chapter nine Chemometrics (pages 287–306): Philippe Breuil
Chapter 10 Impedancemetric Sensors (pages 307–330): Jacques Fouletier and Pierre Fabry
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Extra resources for Chemical and Biological Microsensors: Applications in Liquid Media
Lastly, recent results reported in the literature have demonstrated the possibility of detecting electro-inactive metallic cations, using impedance spectroscopy, at gold electrodes modified by a self-assembled monolayer of selective ligands, such as crown-ethers [FLI 98, FLI 99, BAN 00] or nitrolotriacetic acid [STO 97], via the variation of the capacitance or of the charge transfer resistance of the ligand monolayer. 4. Voltammetric transduction In this case, an electronic conducting electrode is used that exchanges electrons with the species in solution and modifies their oxidation numbers.
If adequacy between the expenses and the receipts cannot be established on the basis of the projected techno-economic study, the project will be abandoned. This point is not always well-understood by the laboratory researchers who were at the origin of the sensor and consider that the innovation of their “baby” is indisputable. If the operation is continued, the industrial development is engaged on the basis of the pre-project. 3. The pre-project The pre-project constitutes a synthesis of the whole set of documents described above.
They have the initial inciting role. They carefully follow the development of the research and take part in the feasibility tests of models and pre-prototypes in close collaboration with the research laboratories. If the results of the tests are positive, and if all the techno-economical elements necessary for industrialization are gathered, they take on the development of the sensor, then its production process and, finally, its commercial dissemination. The collaboration ceases, most of the time, as soon as the product is commercialized.