Chemical Energetics. All about enthalpy, calorimetry and the by Lower S. K.

By Lower S. K.

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Extra info for Chemical Energetics. All about enthalpy, calorimetry and the First Law of Thermodynamics(en)(32s)

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5 Thermodynamics and the weather Hydrogen bonds at work It is common knowledge that large bodies of water have a “moderating” effect on the local weather, reducing the extremes of temperature that occur in other areas. Water temperatures change much more slowly than do those of soil, rock, and vegetation, and this effect tends to affect nearby land masses. This is largely due to the high heat capacity of water in relation to that of land surfaces— and thus ultimately to the effects of hydrogen bonding.

8 C° per km of altitude. Some applications of First-law-related topics Page 30 of 32 Santa Anas and chinooks: those warm, wild winds Just the opposite happens when winds develop in high-altitude areas and head downhill. As the air descends, it undergoes compression from the pressure of the air above it. The surroundings are now doing work on the system, and because the process occurs to rapidly for the increased internal energy to be removed as heat, the compression is approximately adiabatic. The resulting winds are warm (and therefore dry) and are often very irritating to mucous membranes.

This has a direct consequence to anyone who lives near the ocean and is familiar with the daily variations in the direction of the winds between the land and the water. Even large lakes can exert a moderating influence on the local weather due to water's relative insensitivity to temperature change. During the daytime the land and sea receive approximately equal amounts of heat from the Sun, but the much smaller heat capacity of the land causes its temperature to rise more rapidly. This causes the air above the land to heat, reducing its density and causing it to rise.

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