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Thin Solid Films, 308-309, pp. 523-528, 1997. 6 . -L. Wang, C. -S. Feng, J. -S. Chou, “Effects of underlying films on the chemical-mechanical polishing for shallow trench isolation technology,” J. Thin Solid Films, 308 309, pp. 543-549, 1997. 7. P. C. Andricacos, C. Uzoh, J. 0. Dukovic, J. Horkans, H. , San Diego, CA, Abstract No. 254, May 3- 8, 1998. 8. W. , pp. 54-58, May 1998. 9. Data Quest, May 1998 (entire CMP tool set for each company). 10. T. Bibby, J. A. Adams, K. Holland, G. A. Krulik, P.

3, high pad speeds coupled with a low-down-force process and using single polyurethane polish pads can lead to significantly improved planarization. These trends are shown in Fig. 4. Orbital pad motion also enables slurry to be delivered directly to the surface of the wafer, which improves slurry distribution [161. However, grooves must be formed in the pads to ensure uniform slurry distribution. For production convenience, the grooves are Cartesian. The ensuing motion of the grooves, especially of the groove intersections, against the wafer causes a spirographic pattern to form if compound motion is not added.

0. Dukovic, J. Horkans, H. , San Diego, CA, Abstract No. 254, May 3- 8, 1998. 8. W. , pp. 54-58, May 1998. 9. Data Quest, May 1998 (entire CMP tool set for each company). 10. T. Bibby, J. A. Adams, K. Holland, G. A. Krulik, P. Parikh, “CMP COO reduction: slurry reprocessing,” Thin Solid Films 308-309, pp. 538- 542, 1997. 11. R. Jairath, A. Pant, T. Mallon, B. Withers, W. , pp. 107-114, Oct. 1996. 12. B. Withers, E. Zhoa, R. Jairath, “A Wide Margin C M P and Clean Process for Shallow Trench Isolation Applications,” 1998 Proceedings of the Third International ChemicalMechanical Planarization for ULSI Multilevel Interconnection Conference (CMP-MIC), Santa Clara, CA, pp.

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