By Stanley M Walas
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Additional resources for Chemical process equipment : selection and design
Control valves are identified by the letters CV- followed by a serial number. When the intent is to show only in general the kind of control system, no special symbol is used for detectors, but simply a point of contact of the signal line with the equipment or process line. Transmitters are devices that convert the measured variable into air pressure for pneumatic controllers or units appropriate for electrical controllers. , but the controller can accept only pneumatic or electrical signals depending on its type.
Examples of control of individual variables are shown in the rest of this chapter with the various equipment (say pumps or compressors) and processes (say distillation or refrigeration) and on the earlier flowsketches of this and the preceding chapters, but some general statements also can be made here. Most control actions ultimately depend on regulation of a flow rate with a valve. TEMPERATURE Temperature is regulated by heat exchange with a heat transfer medium (HTM). The flow rate of the HTM may be adjusted, or the condensing pressure of steam or other vapor, or the amount of heat transfer surface exposed to condensing vapor may be regulated by flooding with condensate, which always has a much lower heat transfer coefficient than that of condensing vapor.
DETERGENT MANUFACTURE The process of making synthetic detergents consists of several operations that will be described consecutively. ALKYLATION Toluene and olefinic stock from storage are pumped (at 80°F) separately through individual driers and filters into the alkylation reactor. The streams combine just before they enter the reactor. The reactor is batch operated 4 hr/cycle; it is equipped with a single impeller agitator and a feed hopper for solid aluminum chloride which is charged manually from small drums.