By G. R. Choppin (auth.), Gregory R. Choppin, Mikhail Kh. Khankhasayev (eds.)
Separation applied sciences are of the most important value to the aim of considerably decreasing the quantity of high-level nuclear waste, thereby lowering the long term health and wellbeing dangers to mankind. overseas co-operation, together with the sharing of recommendations and techniques, in addition to expertise move, is key in accelerating learn and improvement within the field.
The writers of this publication are all the world over known specialists within the box of separation expertise, good certified to evaluate and criticize the present kingdom of separation learn in addition to to spot destiny possibilities for the appliance of separation applied sciences to the answer of nuclear waste administration difficulties. the key emphases within the ebook are learn possibilities within the usage of cutting edge and in all probability extra effective and value potent approaches for waste processing/treatment, actinide speciation/separation tools, technological processing, and environmental restoration.
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Extra info for Chemical Separation Technologies and Related Methods of Nuclear Waste Management: Applications, Problems, and Research Needs
Japan has a very aggressive fuel recycle program which includes construction of a large reprocessing plant of French design under the management of JNFS. Japan's goal is to reduce its dependence on foreign energy sources. Its program includes LWRs, HWRs and FRs. At present Japan buys reprocessing service from COGEMA. Japan has a reprocessing plant in operation at the Tokai Works under the management ofPNC. 4. 1. United States. S. has had three major reprocessing plants in operation in connection with plutonium weapons production and naval ship spent fuel recycle.
The chemical similarity of the fuels allows reprocessing with the universally accepted Purex process; however, the structural differences of the fuels dictate different head end (disassembly and dissolution) processes. The reprocessing wastes produced are virtually identical. An important difference is in the isotopic composition of the plutonium produced and in the very low concentrations of higher actinides. Plutonium from HWR fuel has a smaller fraction of higher isotopes of plutonium. Consequently, it is better suited to use in weapons.
3. 1. THE FIRST REPROCESSING PLANT (RT-l) IN RUSSIA The first reprocessing plant (RT-1) was put into operation at the "Mayak" PA (Ozersk, near Chelyabinsk) in 1977 . It was designed for reprocessing of SNF from the Russian and foreign NPPs with WWER-440 reactors, research reactors, and spent assemblies from the reactors of transport facilities. The delivery rate of WWER-440 is 240 t/y SNF at a maximum throughput of 400 t U/y. The technology at the Plant RT-l is based on the Purex-process with the use of tributyl phosphate (TBP) in a light diluent.