By Dr. Markus Graf, Dr. Diego Barrettino, Prof. Dr. Henry P. Baltes, Prof. Dr. Andreas Hierlemann (auth.)
This is the 1st finished booklet on microhotplate-based chemical sensor platforms in CMOS-technology. It covers all elements of profitable sensor prototyping: conception of transducer modelling, microelectronics layout concerns, process layout concerns, and concerns with regards to method and machine microfabrication, packaging, and checking out. a number of various hotplates for various operation stipulations is distinctive and a kinfolk of metal-oxide-covered microhotplate-based microsensor structures with expanding complexity is gifted. those structures belong to a brand new new release of chemical microsensors and symbolize examples of the winning integration of nanomaterials, microtechnology and microelectronics.
The e-book presents scholars, scientists and engineers with an available advent to the sector of microhotplate-based chemical sensing, with all of the invaluable basic wisdom incorporated. past that, it additionally presents distinctive info on all vital matters referring to complicated high-performance CMOS chemical microsensor structures; consequently it is going to even be precious to specialists already conversant in the field.
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Additional resources for CMOS Hotplate Chemical Microsensors
34) T The considerations so far rely on constant heating power, and the way how this power is applied to the microhotplate does not play a role. In fact, a monolithically integrated control circuitry does not apply constant power but acts as an adjustable current source. Moreover, for measuring the thermal time constant experimentally, either a rectangular voltage or rectangular current pulse is applied. 5 AHDL-Model for System Simulations 27 diﬀers from the “real” thermal time constant as deﬁned by Eqs.
4 summarizes the design parameters. The Pt-resistor was connected in a 4-point conﬁguration with the Pt-Al-contacts located on the bulk silicon. An additional poly-Si temperature sensor was integrated underneath the Pt-resistor, which can be used as a reference. The heater is still fabricated in polysilicon, but the design was modiﬁed in order to avoid Al-contacts in the heated area. The heater has a nominal resistance of Ω and was, again, realized in a parallel conﬁguration. The contact of the polysilicon to the metallization is not located in the heated area, but at a certain distance from the heated area on the membrane.
The thermal time constant was calculated from these data with a curve ﬁt using Eq. 29). As already mentioned in the context of Eq. 37), self-heating occurs with a resistive heater, so that the thermal time constant has to be determined during the cooling cycle. 4 Calibration of the Temperature Sensors The discrete microhotplates were packaged and bonded in a DIL-28 package for temperature sensor calibration. A Pt-100-temperature sensor was attached to the chip package in close vicinity to the sensors.