By Edited by, Siobhan B McAuliffe, MVB DACVIM, and Nathan M Slovis, DVM DipACVIM CHT (Eds.)
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Extra info for Color Atlas of Diseases and Disorders of the Foal
These murmurs frequently radiate dorsally. • Murmurs associated with the aortic valve are commonly heard in the fourth intercostal space on the left-hand side just caudal and dorsal to murmurs associated with the pulmonic valve which are best heard in the third intercostal space on the left-hand side. A holosystolic grade I–IV murmur over the left heart base is a common ﬁnding in foals up to 1 week of age and is normal (until closure of the ductus arteriosus). Loud murmurs with palpable thrills in neonates are associated with cardiac defects (see Chapter 7).
Does the foal appear to be able to see normally? Not walking into walls, people etc. 13 demonstrating an absence of a suck reﬂex. 20: Normal behavior with foal showing afﬁnity for its dam. 23: Foal restraint by holding both ears. It is important not to tug or aggressively pull on the ears as this may cause transient nerve damage. 21: Normal suckle reﬂex: note the curling and protrusion of the tongue. g. milk at the nares may be an indication of a cleft palate. Size and maturity Evaluate the size and maturity of the foal taking account of stated gestational age.
Rectal palpation, ultrasonographic evaluation of the uterus and speculum examination of the vagina and vestibule should be performed in any mare with a foaling injury. • Uterine biopsy may be recommended for older mares in order to identify and eliminate mares from having surgery that are unlikely to subsequently conceive. • Other factors that must be considered before surgical correction include age of the mare, breeding history, whether artiﬁcial insemination is permitted in that breed, and whether surgery will offer only a short-term solution to the problem.