By Christos H. Papadimitriou, Kenneth Steiglitz

In actual fact written graduate-level textual content considers the Soviet ellipsoid set of rules for linear programming; effective algorithms for community circulate, matching, spanning bushes, and matroids; the speculation of NP-complete difficulties; approximation algorithms, neighborhood seek heuristics for NP-complete difficulties, extra. "Mathematicians wishing a self-contained creation desire glance no further." — *American Mathematical Monthly.* 1982 variation.

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**Extra resources for Combinatorial Optimization: Algorithms and Complexity (Dover Books on Computer Science)**

**Sample text**

Book value: The book value corresponds to the amount of assets currently on the company balance sheet. This is in essence an accounting measure of the value of the company, without considering market factors such as future earnings, for example. Price-to-book ratio (P/B): This ratio is determined by dividing the stock price by the assets minus liabilities. The following accounting formula can be used: StockPrice Assets - Liabilities and IntangibleAssets Notice that only tangible assets, the ones that can be eventually sold, are considered in this equation.

The implementation of this member function is simple because it relies on the functionality provided by std::vector to maintain a sequence of numbers, as well as the storage requirements. push_back(close); } The number of periods for moving average calculation is determined by the parameter to the constructor of the MACalculator class. For example, to compute a moving average for 20 time periods (normally the equivalent to four trading weeks when the period is a single trading day), you can create an object of the MACalculator class in the following way: MACalculator calculator(20); // will compute the moving average for 20 periods.

As a result, the EMA is more responsive to changes in the observed values, and it can indicate new trends sooner and with better accuracy. This may be an advantage if you want to quickly spot changes in trend. push_back(val); } return ema; } 29 Chapter 2 ■ The Equities Market The initial part of the calculation is similar to the simple moving average. Values are added using the sum variable, until at least N values have been observed. This is used as the initial value for the EMA. Different implementations of EMA use other ways to initialize the sequence, but the results converge to the same values after a few iterations.