Common Eye Diseases and their Management by Nicholas Robert Galloway MD, FRCS, FRCOphth, Winfried

By Nicholas Robert Galloway MD, FRCS, FRCOphth, Winfried Mawutor Kwaku Amoaku FRCS, FRCOphth, PhD (auth.)

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The technique is known as dacryocystography. Aeute Daeryoeystitis Sometimes the lacrimal sac may become infected. This may occur in either children or adults but is more common in adult females. The condition may present initially as a watering eye and, in its early stages, the diagnosis may be missed if the tear sac is not gently palpated and found to be tender. Subsequently there is marked swelling and tenderness at the inner canthus and eventually the abscess may point and burst. In its early stages the condition can be aborted by the use of local and systemic antibiotics, but once an absces s has formed this may point and burst on the skin surface.

It has nothing to do with the length of the eyeball but is related to the diminished ability to change the shape of the lens . Obviously myopes, hypermetropes and those with no refractive error are all susceptible to presbyopia. The long-sighted person unlike the myope may be predisposed to developing acute narrow angl~ gl~u­ coma especially in late middle age. The OptIC disc of the long-sighted person tends to be smaller and pinker and in extreme cases, especially in children, can look swollen when it is not.

Under suitable conditions the whole surface epithelium can reform in about 48 h. The layer underlying or posterior to the surface epithelium is known as Bowman's mern brane and if this layer is damaged by the injury or cut into unnecessarily by over-zealous use of surgical instruments, then a permanent scar may be left in the cornea. When the epithelium alone is involved there is usually no scar, and healing results in perfect restoration of the optical properties of the surface. Common Diseasesofthe Conjunctiva and Cornea The stroma of the cornea is surprisingly tough, permitting some degree of boldness when removing deeply embedded foreign bodies.

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