By Dr. Luigi Solbiati, Dr. Alberto Martegani, Dr. Edward Leen, Dr. Jean Michel Correas, Dr. Peter N. Burns, Dr. Dirk Becker (auth.)
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Additional resources for Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound of Liver Diseases
Chapter 3 • Liver Physiology 29 Fig. 2. Sonographic view of the lobar anatomy according to Couinaud's segments, subcostal view. Roman numbers represent liver segments Whether this tool is useful for the detecion of small liver metastases is also currently under investigation (Bernatik et al. 2002b). The gallbladder serves as a reservoir for bile. It is located on the undersurface of the right lobe. In healthy humans, it may hold 30-50 ml of bile when fully distended. In its contracted state it has numerous rugae similar to those found in the stomach.
3. Lobular architecture of the liver. (Adapted from Gebhardt 2000) tissue. These are most prominent in nonhuman species such as the pig. The typical appearance is that of a hexagon with portal triads at the corners of the hexagon. In the center of the hexagon is the central vein. The liver cell plates radiate from the central vein to the portal triads, which are located at the circumference of the lobule. The lobulation in humans appears less well defined with no sharp demarcation between lobules owing to a paucity of connective tissue (Fig.
In X-ray imaging, iodine atoms are the basis for increased radio density. In MR imaging, the paramagnetic properties of gadolinium are the basis for the imaging efficacy. X-ray and MR contrast media are usually very sinall, and therefore able to leave the vascular space by diffusion. Ultrasound contrast media, consisting of microbubbles, are relatively large entities. The size of the microbubbles, about 1-10 ~m, is also the principal determinant of their physical efficacy. To be effective in the whole body, the microbubbles have to pass the lung capillaries after an Lv.