Dark Pools: High-Speed Traders, A.I. Bandits, and the by Scott Patterson

By Scott Patterson

A news-breaking account of the worldwide inventory market's subterranean battles, darkish swimming pools portrays the increase of the "bots"- artificially clever structures that execute trades in milliseconds and use the canopy of darkness to out-maneuver the people who've created them.

In the start was once Josh Levine, an idealistic programming genius who dreamed of wresting regulate of the marketplace from the massive exchanges that, repeatedly, gave the enormous associations a bonus over the little man. Levine created a automatic buying and selling hub named Island the place small investors swapped shares, and over the years his invention morphed right into a worldwide digital inventory industry that despatched trillions in capital via an unlimited jungle of fiber-optic cables.  

By then, the marketplace that Levine had sought to mend had grew to become the wrong way up, birthing secretive exchanges known as darkish swimming pools and a brand new species of buying and selling machines which may imagine, and that appeared, ominously, to be slipping the regulate in their human masters.

Dark swimming pools is the attention-grabbing tale of the way international markets were hijacked through buying and selling robots--many so self-directed that people can't expect what they'll do subsequent.

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Extra info for Dark Pools: High-Speed Traders, A.I. Bandits, and the Threat to the Global Financial System

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Orthogonal polygons with integer edge lengths. 027 polyominoes without holes. We also give a lower bound of 38 37 for any deterministic strategy for the OMRTP in polyominoes. 3849, and argue OMATP, we establish a competitive factor of 3√ 3 that this is asymptotically optimal. 1 Introduction Consider a swarm of robots that has to explore a region P . Each robot has limited capabilities: both vision and communication are restricted in range. Incrementally, the swarm has to build a rigid, stable formation that covers all of P .

From the paragraph above, we know that every vertex of G (P ) \ p which is not in C1 is in V1 (p) and every vertex of G (P ) \ p which is not in C2 is in V1 (p). This implies that for all j ∈ {2, 3}, Vj (p) = ∅ and Vj (p) = ∅. This proves the first part of our lemma. / v1 v2 and hence by Lemma 2, there is a For any v1 , v2 ∈ Vi (p), we have p ∈ path in G (P ) between v1 and v2 that does not pass through p. Similarly, for any 26 J. Babu et al. v1 , v2 ∈ Vi (p), p ∈ / v1 v2 and there is a path in G (P ) between v1 and v2 that does not pass through p.

In the full version [2], we have given Fixed-Orientation Equilateral Triangle Matching of Point Sets 25 examples of 3-connected down triangle graphs corresponding to point sets in . general position, for which the size of their maximum matching is only n+5 3 Since the known lower bound for the size of maximum matching in 3-connected , it remains open whether the bound for 3-connected down planar graphs is n+4 3 . triangle graphs can be improved to n+5 3 5 Some Properties of G (P ) In this section, we prove that for a point set P , the 2-connectivity structure of G (P ) is simple and G (P ) can have at most 5n − 11 edges.

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