By Scott Patterson

**A news-breaking account of the worldwide inventory market's subterranean battles, darkish swimming pools portrays the increase of the "bots"- artificially clever structures that execute trades in milliseconds and use the canopy of darkness to out-maneuver the people who've created them.**

In the start was once Josh Levine, an idealistic programming genius who dreamed of wresting regulate of the marketplace from the massive exchanges that, repeatedly, gave the enormous associations a bonus over the little man. Levine created a automatic buying and selling hub named Island the place small investors swapped shares, and over the years his invention morphed right into a worldwide digital inventory industry that despatched trillions in capital via an unlimited jungle of fiber-optic cables.

By then, the marketplace that Levine had sought to mend had grew to become the wrong way up, birthing secretive exchanges known as darkish swimming pools and a brand new species of buying and selling machines which may imagine, and that appeared, ominously, to be slipping the regulate in their human masters.

Dark swimming pools is the attention-grabbing tale of the way international markets were hijacked through buying and selling robots--many so self-directed that people can't expect what they'll do subsequent.

**Read or Download Dark Pools: High-Speed Traders, A.I. Bandits, and the Threat to the Global Financial System PDF**

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**Extra info for Dark Pools: High-Speed Traders, A.I. Bandits, and the Threat to the Global Financial System**

**Sample text**

Orthogonal polygons with integer edge lengths. 027 polyominoes without holes. We also give a lower bound of 38 37 for any deterministic strategy for the OMRTP in polyominoes. 3849, and argue OMATP, we establish a competitive factor of 3√ 3 that this is asymptotically optimal. 1 Introduction Consider a swarm of robots that has to explore a region P . Each robot has limited capabilities: both vision and communication are restricted in range. Incrementally, the swarm has to build a rigid, stable formation that covers all of P .

From the paragraph above, we know that every vertex of G (P ) \ p which is not in C1 is in V1 (p) and every vertex of G (P ) \ p which is not in C2 is in V1 (p). This implies that for all j ∈ {2, 3}, Vj (p) = ∅ and Vj (p) = ∅. This proves the ﬁrst part of our lemma. / v1 v2 and hence by Lemma 2, there is a For any v1 , v2 ∈ Vi (p), we have p ∈ path in G (P ) between v1 and v2 that does not pass through p. Similarly, for any 26 J. Babu et al. v1 , v2 ∈ Vi (p), p ∈ / v1 v2 and there is a path in G (P ) between v1 and v2 that does not pass through p.

In the full version [2], we have given Fixed-Orientation Equilateral Triangle Matching of Point Sets 25 examples of 3-connected down triangle graphs corresponding to point sets in . general position, for which the size of their maximum matching is only n+5 3 Since the known lower bound for the size of maximum matching in 3-connected , it remains open whether the bound for 3-connected down planar graphs is n+4 3 . triangle graphs can be improved to n+5 3 5 Some Properties of G (P ) In this section, we prove that for a point set P , the 2-connectivity structure of G (P ) is simple and G (P ) can have at most 5n − 11 edges.