Democracy and Dictatorship in Ghana and Tanzania by R. Pinkney

By R. Pinkney

An exam of the evolution of democracy in Ghana and Tanzania, following lengthy sessions of single-party and armed forces rule, and appears on the present and strength stumbling blocks to democratic improvement. After discussing the character of democracy, the writer is going directly to give some thought to the stipulations that have made the emergence of multi-party politics attainable in Ghana and Tanzania. The publication appears on the stability of forces among governments and campaigners for pluralist democracy, and on the results that emerged.

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It was easy to argue that, far from giving voice to the people's aspirations, parties were a means by which the few exploited the many. Keep them out of politics, and the true wishes of the people would be articulated, whether through Acheampong's corporate groups or Rawlings's District Assemblies and Committees for the Defence of the Revolution. As an ideal, one could argue that populism wras no more alien to Africa than liberal democracy but, in terms of practical application, no one has yet found a means of achieving the elusive consensus that party politics is supposed to have destroyed.

Trains no longer stop at Marx-Engels Strasse, but at Heckescher Market. The visitor to Ghana, in contrast, can land at Kotokta Airport (named after the general who ousted President Nkrumah), and travel via Danquah Circle (named after Nkrumah's leading opponent who died in gaol) and along Kwame Nkrumah Avenue (named after the President of the First Republic), before stopping to shop at 31 December Makola Market (which commemorates Flight Lieutenant Rawlings's second coup). Only the leaders of the unstable Third Republic and the unloved second military government, the National Redemption Council (NRC), remain uncommemorated.

By this time the economic benefits of the early years of military government, when cocoa prices had been rising and agri- Ghana: Democracy, Socialism, Populism 43 cultural output growing, had been offset by negative economic growth, huge balance of payments and budget deficits, shortages of essential goods and a rate of inflation of nearly 100 per cent. Real wages were estimated to have fallen to a quarter of their 1972 value. In an economic world of shortages and a political world of unaccountable government, black markets and corruption flourished (see especially Jeffries in Cruise O'Brien et al.

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